Home > Uncategorized > Eventless Programming – Part 5: Async/Await and Throttling

Eventless Programming – Part 5: Async/Await and Throttling

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Last time we were able to throw a few more working features into our UI with relatively little effort, following very simple patterns. The result is that the UI automatically updates itself according to every change the user makes to the state of a control.

Which raises the question: what if that involves working a little too hard? If the user makes half a dozen changes in quick succession (say, they impatiently click the “Increase Radiation” button five times) then it makes little sense to do a ton of work to update the UI after every single click. It would be wiser to wait until they stop clicking it for half a second or something.

This is especially important when the updating work involves something really costly like downloading content over the network. And that’s another point – how do we integrate with asynchronous background calls? Oh no, my whole universe is starting to crumble!

Except it’s not. There are simple answers to both questions. Let’s start with the rapid-fire-recomputations problem. Recall that in our Notes view model, we cook up this:

SelectedNotes = Computed.From(
    () => AllNotes.Where(n => n.IsSelected.Value).ToList());

This means that every time you check or uncheck the selection CheckBox for a note, a Where/ToList is re-executed, and then various bits of UI infrastructure get rejigged as a result of SelectedNotes changing. In fact we can easily monitor how often this happens by adding this line:

Computed.Do(() => Debug.WriteLine("SelectedNotes: " + SelectedNotes.Value.Count()));

Now try clicking Select all and you’ll see the crazy results:

SelectedNotes: 0
SelectedNotes: 1
SelectedNotes: 2
SelectedNotes: 3
SelectedNotes: 4
SelectedNotes: 5
SelectedNotes: 6
SelectedNotes: 7
SelectedNotes: 8
SelectedNotes: 9
SelectedNotes: 10
SelectedNotes: 11
SelectedNotes: 12
SelectedNotes: 13
SelectedNotes: 14
SelectedNotes: 15
SelectedNotes: 16

Yes, as we loop through the notes setting IsSelected to true, every single time the SelectedNotes list is recomputed and so triggers UI updates. It may not be a problem in this little example, but it’s not to hard to see how it could become a problem if the UI update were more expensive.

So that’s why it needs to be this easy to fix it:

SelectedNotes = Computed.From(
    () => AllNotes.Where(n => n.IsSelected.Value).ToList()

Yep, you just tack .Throttle(100) on the end, and it configures the Computed to wait until it hasn’t been notified of a change in its dependencies for at 100 milliseconds before acting on it; that is, it waits for stability. There’s actually a second parameter bool that lets you select between two behaviours:

1. true: wait for n milliseconds of stability (the default)
2. false: recompute no more than once every n milliseconds during instability

The default behaviour means that if the user keeps making changes back and forth indefinitely, the UI will never update. But of course in reality they don’t do that, so it’s usually fine. But if you wanted to show continuous feedback while (say) the user drags a slider, maybe the second behaviour would be more suitable. There’s no hard and fast rule here, which is why it’s an option.

Now let’s do some asynchronous downloading. Say we have a TextBox where the user types a URL, and we are going to download it automatically as they type. In reality they’d be adjusting a more restricted set of parameters than just a raw URL, of course, but it serves as an example. First we’d bind the TextBox to a Setable.

var urlText = Setable.From(string.Empty);

Then from that we’d compute a Uri object, or null if the string isn’t yet a valid URI.

var uri = Computed.From(() =>
    Uri result;
    Uri.TryCreate(urlText.Value, UriKind.Absolute, out result);
    return result;

So far, so obvious. But it turns out the last part isn’t too surprising either:

var response = Computed.From(async () =>
    if (uri.Value == null)
        return "You haven't entered a valid url yet...";

        return await new HttpClient().GetStringAsync(uri.Value);
    catch (HttpRequestException x)
        return "Error: " + x.Message;

You just put the async keyword in front of the lambda you pass into Computed.From (and of course you should probably use Throttle, as I’ve done here). So what is response? It’s an IGetable, as you’d expect, but what type of Value does it hold? By inspecting the various return statements of our lambda, it’s pretty clear that it returns a string, but it is an async lambda so therefore it returns Task<string>.

But Computed.From has a special overload for Task<T> that takes care of await-ing the result value. So the upshot is that response is simply a IGetable<string> and can immediately be bound to a control:


When used inside a UI application, async/await automatically ensures that if you launch a task from the UI thread and await it, the await will return on that same UI thread. So your UI code never has to worry about threads much at all, which is very reassuring (it’s not like the old days, when you had to manually use Control.Invoke to ensure that your UI updating operations happened on the right thread).

The complete source code for this series of articles is available here:


It’s a Visual Studio 2012 solution.

Next time… well, actually I’m going to pause here for a while. The next step would be to see how we can apply these ideas to a more current UI framework like Windows Runtime. In the meantime, I hope it’s been interesting to see how the core ideas of Knockout are applicable in environments that have nothing to do with HTML and JavaScript, and it’s not actually about binding to the UI. The key thing is providing a highly productive way to transform your raw data. That’s what makes the binding part easy. So unless you make the data transformation easy, then you’ve just moved the problem without solving it. Computed observables are what make it possible to declare your data transformations, and so enable eventless programming. They are the secret sauce of Knockout.

Categories: Uncategorized Tags: , ,
  1. May 4, 2013 at 10:12 pm

    Very cool. I’m a big fan of knockout – interesting to see it applied in the C# world.

  2. August 3, 2013 at 11:24 am

    Thanks for that blogseries. knockout blew me away in js, now seeing the concept on winforms blows me away again. It triggers so many “damn if i had that back when i…” moments, it’s impressive.

    Can’t wait to see more.

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